Phase changes in water
Water is present in the atmosphere in solid (ice), liquid and gas form. To understand weather and thunderstorms, we need to take a look at how water behaves.
Water changes states from vapour to liquid to solid and vice versa. The change from one state to another is called a phase change. To change water from solid (ice) to liquid (…water) to vapour (steam), you need to add energy (heat).
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Fun fact(s): you need the same amount of heat to melt a kilogram of water ice at 0 °C as you need to heat the same kilogram of melted water from 0 °C to 80 °C. It takes a lot of heat to melt ice! It takes even more heat to evaporate the same amount of water: it takes over 6 times as much energy to evaporate 1 kg of boiling water than to melt 1 kg of water ice!